History of Educational Technology

You cannot find any written evidence which can tell us exactly who has coined the very phrase educational technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time intervals have put forwarded distinct definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technology is a diverse and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, equipment, and organization, where technology from different fields for science is borrowed as per the need and requirement of schooling for implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those problems linked to all aspects of human learning.

Educational technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five stages.

The first stage of educational technological know-how is coupled with the use of aids like charts, maps, signs, models, specimens and concrete materials. The term educational systems was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.

The second cycle of educational technology is associated with the ‘electronic revolution’ while using introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and computer software. Use of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the academic scenario. Accordingly, educational technology concept was taken in words of these sophisticated instruments and equipments for effective introduction of instructional materials.

The third stage of educational concept is linked with the development of mass media which in turn led to ‘communication revolution’ for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education and learning since 1950s also became popular during this era.

The fourth time of educational technology is discernible by the individualized technique of instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed education provided a new dimension to educational technology. A system about self-learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines came forth.

The latest concept of educational technology is influenced by the thought of system engineering or system approach which focuses on terminology laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies plus the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational solutions is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the complete process of teaching and learning in terms of specific objectives based upon research.

Educational technology during the Stone Age, the Bronze Era, and the Iron Age
Educational technology, despite the uncertainty belonging to the origin of the term, can be traced back to the time within the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; namely the main Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.

Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of assorted handmade weapon and utensils from stones and garments practice were some of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. Some sort of fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger raft ship technology to migrate from one place to another along the Ocean, by which they developed their first informal training of knowledge of the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period), for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were created from a variety of hard rocks largely by digging metro tunnels, which can be considered as the first steps in mining technology. Typically the polished axes were so effective that even after visual appeal of bronze and iron; people used it for removing forest and the establishment of crop farming.

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